Every Dog Has its Day: Hopefully Not in Court

The joy and happiness of dog ownership has been proven time and time again. However, with dog ownership also comes legal responsibly. After all, dog breeds of all shapes and sizes have the potential to inflict harm, even inadvertently, to people or other animals and the legal consequences must be taken seriously.

In Ontario, the Dog Owners’ Liability Act (the “Act”) governs the law in relation to dog bites and attacks.

Defining Dog “Ownership”

The term “owner” is broadly defined in the Act to include:

a person who possesses or harbours the dog.

This broad definition of owner may potentially include someone such as a dog sitter or dog walker who merely “harbours” or “possesses” a dog.

Establishing Fault of the Owner

The Act also states the following:

The owner of a dog is liable for damages resulting from a bite or attack by the dog on another person or domestic animal.

Under the Act, the owner of the dog is responsible for any damages that it causes by biting, attacking or harming another person or dog. It does not matter that the owner was careful with the dog, or did not know it might hurt somebody, or made best efforts to prevent it from causing injury.

For a dog bite victim to establish liability, all that he/she must prove is that the dog attack happened and the identity of the owner. Whether or not the owner acted reasonably is not a factor the court will look at when considering liability/fault. If you have picked up a catastrophic personal injury from either a dog bite or attack, then it is in your best interests to contact a personal injury lawyer in your area as soon as you can so you can get the compensation that you deserve.

Amount of Damages Payable

Once the court makes a finding of fault/liability on the owner, the next step is to assess the amount of damages that must be paid. This will vary on a case-by-case basis and will depend upon the severity of the injuries suffered. For example, the cost of past or future medical treatment or lost wages as a result of the incident may be compensable. There may also be certain expenses incurred including medication costs and assistive devices due to the incident.

The amount payable by the owner might also depend on the precautions taken if any to try and prevent or minimize the severity of the attack; for example, securing the dog on a leash.

Section 2(3) of the Act (as cited above) includes the wording:

…the court shall reduce the damages awarded in proportion to the degree, if any, to which the fault or negligence of the plaintiff caused or contributed to the damages

This section deals with reducing the amount of damages payable by the owner to the same degree the victim contributed to their own harm. This might include taunting the dog, or provoking the dog before being attacked.

What to do if you are hurt by a dog?

If you are injured as a result an incident with a dog, it is important to obtain the name and contact information of the owner.

It would also be wise to obtain any witness information in the event the dog owner denies the incident took place.

Photographs of the injury and of the dog itself would also be useful information to obtain.

Of course getting the proper medical treatment is imperative.

If necessary, contact an experienced injury lawyer to assist you with commencing a claim.


Dogs are dogs and as much as we envision friendly wagging tails and happy licks, the reality is that incidents including bites, attacks or even being knocked down by an exuberant dog are bound to happen. These injuries may result in permanent physical and psychological harm caused by dog breeds of all shapes and sizes.

Dog owners must be aware of their responsibilities and dog victims should be mindful of their legal rights in the event that such a bite or attack happens to them or a loved one.

This blog post was contributed by Lawson Hennick, associate lawyer with Yermus & Associates and the creator of Lawbubble.com

Written by

Lawson is the founding lawyer of Hennick Law.

He received his Bachelor of Science degree in Biology from York University, and then attended University of Ottawa’s Faculty of Law graduating with a Bachelor of Laws degree in 2009 before being called to the Ontario Bar in 2010.

Lawson articled with a boutique litigation firm where he gained experience in a variety of practice areas including representing Indian Residential School survivors to obtain compensation through the Independent Assessment Process for sexual and physical harms suffered.

Since his call to the bar, Lawson has devoted his legal practice exclusively to the area of personal injury and employment law. He started his firm in 2019 and regularly acts for clients on injury claims including motor vehicle accidents, slip and falls, product liability, dog bite cases and employment law disputes. He regularly appears before the Superior Court of Justice and has also appeared before the Financial Services Commission of Ontario (FSCO) and License Appeal Tribunal.