Naghash v. Pashahzahiri, 2023 ONSC 609

Full Decision

This recent decision focuses on the rebuttable presumption that a vehicle in the possession of somebody other than the lessee has the consent of the lessee. If the lessee cannot rebut this presumption, the lessee is vicariously liable for any damage caused by the operation of the motor vehicle. Consent can be either express or implied.

In this case, one of the defendants, Mohammad Ganjikhany, had rented a motor vehicle on or about July 3, 2017. On July 5, 2017, Mohammad parked the rented vehicle outside his mechanic shop. Mohammad left the keys hanging on a board near the shop office. The plaintiff Ali Mehraein, a friend of Mohammad, asked if he and the other defendant Vahid Pashahzahiri could borrow the car that Mohammad had rented. Mohammad claimed he said “no.” Vahid drove away in the vehicle with Ali as a passenger shortly thereafter. While Vahid was driving the rented vehicle, a collision occurred.

The issue before the court was whether Mohammad had given express or implied consent for Ali and Vahid to use the vehicle. If express or implied consent had been provided, Mohammad would be vicariously liable for the damages caused by Vahid’s operation of the vehicle.


Mohammad’s position was that he did not provide express or implied consent to Ali and/or Vahid to use the rented vehicle. Mohammad testified that on July 5, 2017, he parked the rented vehicle in a parking lot adjacent to the shop, and he left the keys hanging on a board in the shop near the office where both employees’ and customers’ keys are kept. Mohammad knew Ali for two years at this point but had never met Vahid. Ali and Vahid came by the shop in the evening of July 5, 2017. Ali asked Mohammad if they could borrow the vehicle, to which Mohammad replied “no.” A few hours later, Mohammad was about to go home but he noticed the keys and vehicle were missing. Mohammad called Ali, and Ali advised that he and Vahid had borrowed the car. Mohammad decided to stay the night at the shop. The next day, Ali advised Mohammad that the vehicle had been involved in a collision.

The Law

Section 192(3) of the Highway Traffic Act places a rebuttable presumption on the lessee of a vehicle:

A lessee of a motor vehicle or street car is liable for loss or damage sustained by any person by reason of negligence in the operation of the motor vehicle or street car on a highway, unless the motor vehicle or street car was without the lessee’s consent in the possession of some person other than the lessee or the lessee’s chauffeur.

Justice McCarthy outlined the following with respect to consent to use or operate a vehicle:

  • Consent is an issue to be determined by the evidence. –Argante v. Munro, 2014 ONSC 3626
  • A consideration of implied consent requires a determination of whether the circumstances were such as would show that the operator of the vehicle was, at the time of the accident, in possession of it with the owner’s implied consent – Sparks v. Cushnie, 2021 ONSC 213
  • If a vehicle is in the possession of a person with the owner’s consent, then the owner is liable regardless of whether the person actually operating the vehicle has the owner’s consent, even if that person is operating the vehicle contrary to the owner’s express wishes –Henwood v. Coburn, 2007 ONCA 882, 88 O.R. (3d) 81
  • The owner of a vehicle is required to exercise careful management of their vehicle and they must bear liability for all loss or damage caused by any person to whom they entrust possession of that vehicle – Cummings v. Budget Car Rentals Toronto Ltd., 1996 CanLII 1629 (ON CA), 29 O.R. (3d) 1 (ONCA)
  • The accessibility of keys and the lack of steps taken by a vehicle owner to safeguard keys may be considered in determining the existence of implied consent –Deakins v. Aarsen et al., 1970 CanLII 27 (SCC), [1971] S.C.R. 609
  • An owner cannot avoid vicarious liability simply because the operator breached conditions or restrictions placed upon him – Parkinson v. MacDonnell, 1995 CarswellOnt 1402


Justice McCarthy noted the following factual circumstances surrounding the incident in its decision:

  • Mohammad and Ali had been friends for several years
  • Ali frequently visited Mohammad’s shop and was a former employee of the shop
  • Mohammad was aware of Ali’s criminal history of stealing cars
  • The keys to the vehicle were left in a conspicuous location (on a hook on a board by a door to the entrance to the office)

Furthermore, Justice McCarthy took issue with the fact that Mohammad could not explain how Ali knew which specific vehicle Mohammad had rented only a couple of days prior to the discussion taking place in the garage. As such, Justice McCarthy drew an adverse influence that Mohammad must have given Ali a specific enough description of the rented vehicle.

Justice McCarthy also noted how Mohammad assumed that Ali had taken the vehicle when he noticed it was missing. Mohammad also did not report the vehicle as stolen to the police because he thought Ali would return it. Mohammad also did not tell his wife about the missing vehicle because he didn’t want to upset her. Justice McCarthy took issue with the fact that someone would not inform their spouse they would be unexpectedly not returning home for the night.

As such, Justice McCarthy found Mohammad’s conduct to be “inconsistent with what one would reasonably expect on the part of an individual who had flatly refused to lend his vehicle to a friend a short time before.”


Justice McCarthy found that Mohammad “would have had no reason to contact either the police or his spouse that evening because his friend was in possession of the vehicle either with his express or implied consent.” Mohammad did not rebut the presumption of consent and he was held vicariously liable for the damages caused by Vahid’s operation of the rented vehicle.

Written by

Brandon Pedersen was called to the bar in Ontario in 2021 and practices with McLeish Orlando LLP, helping individuals who have suffered a critical injury or lost a loved one due to the negligence of others.

Brandon has successfully argued for his clients at the Ontario Superior Court of Justice, the Ontario Court of Justice, the License Appeal Tribunal, and the Social Security Tribunal.

Brandon is a member of the Ontario Trial Lawyers Association, the Toronto Lawyers Association, the Ontario Bar Association, Canadian Bar Association and the Law Society of Ontario.